Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

Original/alternative title:  SES


The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is a unidimensional 10-item self-report measure of global self-esteem. It consists of 10 statements related to overall feelings of self-worth or self-acceptance. The items are answered on a four-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The SES has also been administered as an interview.

Additional information

Rosenberg M. Conceiving the Self. Krieger: Malabar, FL, 1986.

Blascovich J, Tomaka J. "Measures of Self-Esteem." Robinson JP, Shaver PR, Wrightsman LS (eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes. Third Edition. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, 1993, pp. 115-160.

Chao RCL, Vidacovich C, Green K. Rasch analysis of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale with African Americans. Psychol Assess 2017;29(3):329-342.

Marsh HW, Scalas LF, Nagengast B. Longitudinal tests of competing factor structures for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Traits, ephemeral artifacts, and stable response styles. Psychol Assess 2010;22(2):366-381.

Sinclair SJ, Blais MA, Gansler DA, Sandberg E, Bistis K, LoCicero A. Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: overall and across demographic groups living within the United States. Eval Health Prof 2010;33(1):56-80

Davis C, Kellett S, Beail N. Utility of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 2009;114(3):172-8.