EU Drug Market: Drivers and facilitators — Technology and innovation

Cover of EDMR: drivers and facilitators - technology and innovation
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This resource is part of EU Drug Market: Drivers and facilitators by the EMCDDA and Europol.

Last update: 30 May 2024

Innovations across a range of areas have become key enablers for criminal networks throughout the drug supply chain. These include new methods and techniques used to produce drugs, yielding higher outputs, products with higher potency or purity, and novel consumer products; and continuous advancements in the digital sphere, as seen in the ongoing adaptation of online drug distribution models.

Innovation in drug production and supply

Although a number of different factors affect levels of drug production, recent innovations in production techniques and equipment have resulted in higher outputs, products with higher potency or purity, and a broader range of consumer products.

For example, innovations in agronomic techniques and equipment have been applied to coca plants in Latin America, as well as industrial cannabis cultivation sites in Europe (see EU Drug Market: Cannabis). In Europe, such innovations are linked to higher cannabis herb and resin outputs, higher-potency cannabis and a more diverse range of cannabis consumer products. Another key innovation in cannabis production is the continuous emergence of new semi-synthetic cannabinoids, which are made by processing naturally occurring cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (see EU Drug Market: Cannabis).

Innovations in cocaine production appear to have contributed to an oversupply of cocaine in the global supply chain (see EU Drug Market: Cocaine). Among the innovations is the re-oxidation of cocaine base, which is a sophisticated method used in Colombia that increases the efficiency of cocaine production. Collaboration between European and Latin American networks to produce cocaine in Europe, using chemicals and equipment of higher quality, is also driving innovation in this area.

Innovations in methamphetamine production are also taking place in Europe, particularly in the resolution-racemisation-recycling (RRR) process (see EU Drug Market: Methamphetamine), which has increased the efficiency and output of methamphetamine production. Collaboration and knowledge exchange between Mexican and European criminal networks is also driving innovation and poses a key threat.

While amphetamine production appears to be relatively stable and high in Europe, there have been recent signals of changes in methods (see EU Drug Market: Amphetamine). In particular, the so-called nitrostyrene method may become more prominent in the future, reflecting the adaptability and resilience of synthetic drug producers, who change their methods in response to (or in anticipation of) changes in the availability of chemicals. Importantly, the nitrostyrene method can be used to circumvent producers’ reliance on benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) and its alternative chemicals, underscoring the continuous innovation seen in the use of new chemicals and precursors for illicit drug production (see Section Precursor innovation).

Precursor innovation

Innovations in the use of chemicals and precursors have led to transformational developments in illicit synthetic drug production. In Europe, producers have shifted from the use of highly controlled drug precursors to the use of non-regulated chemicals that can be easily converted to those precursors, or even chemicals that can be directly transformed into various synthetic drugs (see EU Drug Market: Methamphetamine). As well as confirming that drug producers are becoming more adept at borrowing techniques from the pharmaceutical industry and applying them to the illicit drugs trade in order to evade detection, these developments present a challenge to the international precursor control regime.

A potential future threat in this area is the application of artificial intelligence and related technologies such as large language models (Europol, 2023a) to identify new chemicals and molecules that could be used in illicit drug production (see Box Artificial intelligence). Importantly, the pharmaceutical industry currently uses artificial intelligence in the drug discovery and development process (Qureshi et al., 2023).

Chemical masking of drugs

There have also been innovations in the concealment of drugs using chemical masking. This involves modifying the drug into a new substance, which is harder to detect by customs and law enforcement agencies. For example, producers chemically conceal cocaine hydrochloride, cocaine base and cocaine paste in carrier materials (such as charcoal, coco pulp and plastics). The extraction of the cocaine from these carrier materials usually takes place in dedicated ‘secondary extraction facilities’ in Europe. The cocaine extracted from carrier materials in base form must subsequently be transformed into cocaine hydrochloride, either in the same facility or in a dedicated ‘base to hydrochloride’ illicit laboratory (see EU Drug Market: Cocaine).

Another new modus operandi is the smuggling of heroin dissolved in liquids along the main trafficking routes for Afghan opiates to Europe (see EU Drug Market: Heroin and other opioids). A number of seizures between 2020 and 2021 involved several hundred litres of heroin in liquid form (typically concealed in the fuel tanks of vehicles) and intended for countries in eastern Europe, the Baltic region, Türkiye and western Europe. However, so far, no liquid heroin seizures have been reported in the European Union.

Digitally enabled drug markets

Surface web

The surface web (see Figure Surface web, deep web and darknet), including legitimate e-commerce platforms and social media, is an important medium for the sale of new psychoactive substances (NPS), misused medicines (including falsified and counterfeit medicines), illicit drugs, drug precursors and related chemicals. Large and highly flexible criminal structures have been identified in relation to online NPS shops in particular. An example of Member States efforts focussed on restricting the use of the surface web in NPS distribution is the multi-agency approach taken in Germany – supported by the EU Internal Security Fund DrAIN (Disruption and Analysis of the Internet NPS Market) project (Bayerisches Landeskriminalamt, 2021). While this has resulted in the closure of a number of online NPS shops, it is unclear whether German retailers have stopped selling these substances altogether or have relocated to darknet markets or social media. Further monitoring, analysis and investigation are required to determine how long-lasting this effect will be.

Surface web, deep web and darknet
This figure visualises three layers of the internet as an iceberg, whereby the majority of information available online lies within the deep web and the darknet.

Social networks and instant messenger apps

Drug sales on social media platforms appear to be gaining in prominence, but there is relatively little research exploring their place in the wider technology-based drug markets (see Box European Web Survey on Drugs: information on online purchases). Furthermore, given the convenience and ease of use of these platforms, there is potential for them to amplify the various risks associated with drug use (Oksanen et al., 2021) (see Box Motivations for buying and selling drugs on social media platforms).

Social media includes a wide range of digital platforms designed for communication. These include image-sharing platforms, instant messaging apps and online forums. There are different levels of drug market openness across these platforms, ranging from public, where vendors make their profile publicly available, to private, where drug-related content is restricted to pre-screened users.

Most social media platforms appear to be used as marketplaces for illicit drugs (see Box Online ethnography: examining drug distribution on social media platforms in Europe). Yet there are significant challenges involved in designing and conducting research in this area: social media content can be temporary, fragmented and rapidly changing; and messages are almost always encrypted or otherwise difficult to access. The terminology used also changes rapidly, and, unlike darknet markets – which often have a global reach – dealers on social media are often more local, with a regional or city focus. As such, research into these activities may require language processing.

Vendors on social media use captions, hashtags and emojis to enable potential buyers to search for drugs (Demant and Bakken, 2019). Geographical areas of operation may also be indicated to allow potential buyers to identify local vendors (Moeller, 2022). Vendors are then contacted, either through the messaging function of the platform or via instant messaging apps, to conduct the transaction. While some transactions are conducted in-person and paid for in cash, most use online payment systems, with the product being shipped to the buyer’s door or to a pick-up point (Demant and Bakken, 2019).

Given the local dimension of social media drug markets and their interaction with offline markets, they have the potential to influence the operation of ‘street’ markets. Future research would need to investigate the intersection between digitally enabled drug markets and traditional ‘street’ markets, for example, by exploring the risks of being conned, robbed or arrested. This could inform appropriate policy decisions and responses (van der Sanden et al., 2022).

Use of social media to recruit low-level drug market facilitators

In addition to drug sales, social media is also used to recruit low-level drug market facilitators. Accounts have been identified on Snapchat that are dedicated to the recruitment of individuals for drug-related tasks, including drug smuggling and cross-border drug transportation. Using multiple notifications (‘stories’ or direct messages) per day, they appear to offer considerable sums of money to individuals willing to transport drugs across international borders (see Screenshot A Snapchat notice from a drug-dealing account seeking to recruit a ‘drug mule’) or to make their personal bank account available for large transactions or cash withdrawals (‘money muling’) (see Screenshot Snapchat notices from drug-dealing accounts offering money for drug-related services) (Demant and Bjerre Aagesen, 2022). Money muling has been identified in some Member States as an emerging method of money laundering (Europol, 2023b).

Snapchat notice from a drug-dealing account seeking to recruit a ‘drug mule’
A drug mule is sought for ‘monthly trips to Norway’ (from Denmark), with the sum of DKK 30 000 (EUR 4 000) plus DKK 2 000 (around EUR 270) offered for each trip. The advertisement states that ‘everything is paid for and you will also need to move your address’ to Norway. Source: Demant and Bjerre Aagesen, 2022.
Snapchat notices from drug-dealing accounts offering DKK 3 000 (EUR 400) to buyers of mobile phone cards (left); and DKK 35 000 (EUR 4 700) per transaction to individuals for the withdrawal of DKK 200 000 (EUR 26 855) (right).
Snapchat notices from drug-dealing accounts offering DKK 3 000 (EUR 400) to buyers of mobile phone cards (left); and DKK 35 000 (EUR 4 700) per transaction to individuals for the withdrawal of DKK 200 000 (EUR 26 855) (right). Source: Demant and Bjerre Aagesen, 2022.

Darknet markets

Darknet markets have been active for more than a decade. They enable buyers and sellers to conduct transactions online with a high level of anonymity. These markets are based on a combination of digital technologies, namely anonymous communication technology (e.g. Tor – Dingledine et al., 2004) and pseudo-anonymous or anonymous payment systems (Nakamoto, 2009). These characteristics have made them attractive for buyers and sellers of illicit drugs. As such, it is important to understand darknet trends when developing both supply- and demand-side drug policies.

Darknet markets tend to be global and operate in English, although some are focused on a particular country or language group. Although sale and trade volumes on darknet markets have fluctuated over the years, reflecting the frequent entry into and exit from the ecosystem by multiple individual markets, the darknet market ecosystem is currently considered to be active, albeit at lower levels than previously observed. A number of factors, such as more frequent scams, voluntary closures and law enforcement activity, appear to have a considerable impact on drug supply via darknet markets.

Data from the monitoring period, 2020-2022, show a darknet market ecosystem characterised by high turnover and fragmentation. In recent years, many markets have been ‘exit-scammed’, whereby those in control accumulate customers’ funds and subsequently exit the darknet ecosystem without fulfilling orders, or have been taken down by law enforcement agencies. An example of this is Empire, a leading darknet market that stopped operations in August 2020, departing abruptly and failing to fulfil pending orders. However, in late 2021, a number of markets also voluntarily closed and exited in a relatively orderly fashion once they had achieved their profit objectives and without misleading their customers (including some of the largest such as WhiteHouse, Cannazon and Torrez). Numerous new markets also appeared but were mostly short-lived, creating a highly fragmented environment.

The darknet market ecosystem continues to consist of many short-lived markets (see Figure Darknet markets ecosystem: lifetime and reason for closure of over 150 global darknet markets offering drugs, sorted by date). Over the next five years, it is expected that this scene will continue to fragment. While some larger, multi-vendor, multi-commodity markets may survive, there will likely be an increasing number of vendor shops and smaller markets (see Box Vendor shops). International law enforcement therefore needs to focus on these smaller markets.

Darknet markets ecosystem: lifetime and reason for closure of over 150 global darknet markets offering drugs, sorted by date

Key

O = 'Open': market still operating at time of writing.
E = 'Exit scam': market operator closes the site down suddenly, taking the money held in escrow without fulfilling the orders
V = 'Voluntary exit': market is closed with the mutual consent of those involved and without known losses to users
R = 'Raided': shut down by law enforcement
H = 'Hacked': market closure precipitated by a hack or as a result of de-anonymisation
U = 'Unknown reason' the exact reason for closure is not know

Sources: EMCDDA, Web-IQ. Notes: Start and end dates – the dates of the first and last known sales/withdrawals. Closure type – the reason for a market shut-down. Market status last checked on 31 December 2023.

These ongoing developments underscore the dynamic nature of darknet markets – which evolve constantly to mitigate threats and exploit new opportunities – and their ability to introduce or adopt new technologies to evade interdiction. Enhanced monitoring capacity in this area, and targeted law enforcement action, is thus crucial to ensure that responses keep pace with developments (see Box Disrupting darknet ‘information hubs’).

Ongoing innovation in darknet markets, and their intersection with social media and surface web applications, has caused further complexity for monitoring and interdiction. For example, a vendor shop bot for direct sales – known as Televend – emerged in 2021, powered by the instant messaging app Telegram and supported by a Tor vendor panel (see Screenshot Televend: automated direct deals platform and Box Online drug sales automation).

By adding Televend as a contact on the Telegram app and following a few additional steps, users could access a list of drug vendors. The vendor shop was operated by a bot around the clock, managing purchase requests and all administrative functions. The service provided security to vendors as well as negating the risks of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks.

Although Televend was compromised in September 2021, it provided proof of concept for an innovative combination of darknet market and messaging app technologies for trading illicit drugs. Televend-like markets could potentially attract users who already routinely scroll through social media content and have less technological know-how than darknet market users (Barratt et al., 2022). Considering the advantages for users, including convenience and a lower risk of scams, and higher protection for vendors, it is conceivable that variations of this model will emerge in future or are already operational. Other potential ways for criminals to exploit new technologies, such as artificial intelligence and machine learning, may also be expected to emerge and spread in the future (UNICRI and Europol, 2020).

References

Consult the list of references used in this module.

Source data

The source data for the figure Darknet markets ecosystem: lifetime and reason for closure of over 150 global darknet markets offering drugs, sorted by date may be found below. See also this data set in our Data catalogue

Darknet markets
Market name Start date End date Status / reason for closure
The Farmer's Market 01/01/2010 01/03/2012 Raided
Silk Road 31/01/2011 02/10/2013 Raided
Black Market Reloaded 30/06/2011 02/12/2013 Hacked
Sheep Marketplace 28/02/2013 29/11/2013 Exit scam
Atlantis 26/03/2013 20/09/2013 Exit scam
BuyItNow 30/04/2013 17/02/2014 Voluntary exit
Deepbay 30/06/2013 04/11/2013 Exit scam
Budster 10/10/2013 20/10/2013 Exit scam
Project Black Flag 14/10/2013 28/10/2013 Exit scam
Pandora 21/10/2013 05/11/2014 Raided
Silk Road 2.0 06/11/2013 05/11/2014 Raided
TorMarket 07/11/2013 22/12/2013 Exit scam
BlackBox Market 12/11/2013 01/02/2014 Voluntary exit
Dream Market 15/11/2013 24/03/2019 Voluntary exit
The Marketplace 28/11/2013 09/11/2014 Voluntary exit
Pirate Market 29/11/2013 15/08/2014 Exit scam
FloMarket 01/12/2013 01/01/2014 Hacked
Black Market 02/12/2013 05/11/2014 Raided
FreeBay 02/12/2013 28/02/2014 Voluntary exit
Blue Sky 03/12/2013 05/11/2014 Raided
Agora 03/12/2013 06/09/2015 Voluntary exit
Tortuga 16/12/2013 05/01/2014 Voluntary exit
TorBay 18/12/2013 20/04/2014 Voluntary exit
White Rabbit 23/12/2013 01/02/2014 Exit scam
Outlaw Market 29/12/2013 23/05/2017 Unknown
GreyRoad 04/01/2014 01/02/2014 Voluntary exit
DrugList 08/01/2014 28/02/2014 Exit scam
Evolution 14/01/2014 18/03/2015 Exit scam
Doge Road 18/01/2014 13/03/2014 Exit scam
Cantina 20/01/2014 07/02/2014 Hacked
Tor Bazaar 26/01/2014 05/11/2014 Raided
DarkBay 30/01/2014 01/05/2014 Voluntary exit
Breaking Bad 01/02/2014 06/02/2014 Voluntary exit
TorEscrow 02/02/2014 19/04/2014 Exit scam
Black Goblin Market 03/02/2014 04/02/2014 Hacked
Cannabis Road 03/02/2014 07/02/2014 Hacked
Utopia 03/02/2014 11/02/2014 Raided
BlackBank Market 05/02/2014 18/05/2015 Exit scam
Cloud 9 11/02/2014 05/11/2014 Raided
Darknet Nation 19/02/2014 01/03/2014 Hacked
Sanitarium Market 20/02/2014 28/03/2014 Voluntary exit
Hansa Marketplace 09/03/2014 20/03/2014 Voluntary exit
Red Sun Marketplace 20/03/2014 23/03/2014 Hacked
EXXTACY 23/03/2014 24/03/2014 Hacked
Topix 25/03/2014 05/11/2014 Raided
Hydra 27/03/2014 05/11/2014 Raided
Cannabis Road 2 28/03/2014 25/08/2014 Hacked
Mr Nice Guy 29/03/2014 20/04/2014 Voluntary exit
Andromeda 05/04/2014 18/11/2014 Exit scam
Silk Street 08/04/2014 04/08/2014 Exit scam
Underground Market 09/04/2014 26/08/2014 Voluntary exit
Pigeon Market 14/04/2014 07/05/2014 Voluntary exit
1776 19/04/2014 02/10/2014 Voluntary exit
Alpaca 20/04/2014 05/11/2014 Raided
Tortuga 2 23/04/2014 17/06/2014 Voluntary exit
TOM 10/05/2014 18/12/2014 Exit scam
Deepzon 14/05/2014 13/07/2014 Voluntary exit
Onionshop 18/05/2014 17/09/2014 Hacked
Area51 20/06/2014 24/01/2015 Exit scam
Middle Earth Marketplace 22/06/2014 04/11/2015 Exit scam
Freedom Market 16/09/2014 25/09/2014 Voluntary exit
Cannabis Road 3 06/10/2014 05/11/2014 Exit scam
Diabolus/SR3 13/10/2014 12/02/2017 Unknown
Nucleus Marketplace 24/10/2014 13/04/2016 Exit scam
Panacea 27/10/2014 13/02/2015 Voluntary exit
Silk Road 3.1 10/12/2014 31/07/2017 Exit scam
Abraxas 13/12/2014 05/11/2015 Exit scam
AlphaBay 22/12/2014 28/06/2017 Raided
Silk Road Reloaded 13/01/2015 27/02/2016 Unknown
Free Market 14/01/2015 26/02/2015 Voluntary exit
T•chka 30/01/2015 28/11/2019 Exit scam
Crypto Market 14/02/2015 12/02/2017 Exit scam
Kiss 19/02/2015 16/05/2015 Unknown
Mr Nice Guy 2 21/02/2015 14/10/2015 Exit scam
Ironclad 17/03/2015 25/03/2015 Exit scam
The Majestic Garden 18/03/2015   Open
TheRealDeal 09/04/2015 22/10/2016 Unknown
Havana/Absolem 13/04/2015 22/05/2015 Hacked
Oxygen 16/04/2015 27/08/2015 Exit scam
East India Company 28/04/2015 01/01/2016 Exit scam
Haven 05/05/2015 06/06/2015 Exit scam
Zanzibar Spice 07/05/2015 14/06/2015 Voluntary exit
Anarchia 07/05/2015 09/05/2016 Unknown
Tornado 12/05/2015 20/05/2015 Unknown
Horizon Market 23/05/2015 08/07/2015 Exit scam
Agape 29/05/2015 04/06/2015 Voluntary exit
Poseidon 02/06/2015 29/06/2015 Exit scam
Amazon Dark 08/06/2015 25/10/2015 Exit scam
Simply Bear 20/06/2015 21/10/2015 Exit scam
Hansa 09/08/2015 20/07/2017 Raided
Valhalla 01/10/2015 01/02/2019 Raided
Hydra (2) 01/12/2015 05/04/2022 Raided
Acropolis 17/12/2015 22/06/2017 Voluntary exit
Apple Market 23/02/2016 21/07/2017 Unknown
House of Lions Market 14/03/2016 27/07/2017 Unknown
CGMC 07/06/2016 14/05/2019 Voluntary exit
Minerva 13/07/2016 22/06/2017 Unknown
TradeRoute 01/08/2016 15/10/2017 Exit scam
Wall Street Market 25/10/2016 16/04/2019 Raided
RSClub Market 27/10/2016 26/10/2017 Hacked
Berlusconi Market 01/11/2016 27/09/2019 Raided
Zion Market 01/12/2016 17/05/2018 Exit scam
OW Market 14/02/2017 01/05/2018 Unknown
Infinite Market 01/04/2017 08/05/2018 Unknown
Placemarket 13/04/2017 22/06/2017 Unknown
Libertas 14/10/2017 19/06/2019 Voluntary exit
Agora Reloaded 08/11/2017 01/01/2018 Hacked
Empire Market 01/02/2018 24/08/2020 Exit scam
Serpent Market 08/02/2018 01/08/2018 Unknown
Olympus Market 24/02/2018 05/09/2018 Exit scam
Apollon 09/03/2018   Open
Cannazon 21/03/2018 14/11/2021 Voluntary exit
Agartha Market 19/04/2018 23/03/2021 Hacked
Rapture Market 21/04/2018 17/11/2018 Exit scam
Cryptonia 06/10/2018 23/11/2019 Exit scam
DIabolus/SR3 12/10/2018 01/05/2019 Exit scam
Tor Market 23/11/2018   Open
Enigma Market 16/02/2019 12/04/2020 Voluntary exit
Yellow Brick Market 18/02/2019 11/01/2021 Exit scam
Nightmare 01/04/2019 24/11/2019 Exit scam
Dreamalt 01/04/2019 30/03/2020 Exit scam
Genesis 01/05/2019 24/08/2019 Exit scam
Dark Market 20/06/2019 12/12/2021 Raided
Grey 01/07/2019 01/12/2019 Exit scam
Samsara 06/07/2019 09/11/2019 Exit scam
Monopoly Market 13/07/2019 28/12/2021 Unknown
Big Blue Market 15/08/2019 08/04/2021 Exit scam
WhiteHouse Market (WHM) 24/08/2019 12/10/2021 Voluntary exit
Darkbey 03/09/2019 01/07/2020 Unknown
Silk Road 4 06/09/2019 06/01/2021 Exit scam
Cannahome Market 15/09/2019 26/04/2022 Voluntary exit
Metropolis market 04/10/2019 30/06/2021 Voluntary exit
Avaris 18/10/2019 09/03/2020 Exit scam
Avior 27/10/2019 01/05/2020 Exit scam
Versus Market 12/12/2019 22/05/2022 Voluntary exit
Cypher Market 09/02/2020   Open
Square Market 13/02/2020 01/09/2020 Exit scam
Black market 20/02/2020 14/06/2020 Exit scam
Darkfox market 24/02/2020   Open
Europa Market 25/02/2020 20/05/2020 Exit scam
ToRReZ Market 28/02/2020 17/12/2021 Voluntary exit
ASAP 25/03/2020 28/07/2023 Voluntary exit
Icarus Market 26/03/2020 09/09/2020 Unknown
DeepSea 08/04/2020 14/10/2020 Exit scam
Yakuza market 08/04/2020   Open
Babylon 16/04/2020   Open
Archetyp 17/05/2020   Open
Dark0de (aka Dark0de Reborn) 24/05/2020 23/02/2022 Exit scam
Vice City 25/05/2020 27/07/2023 Exit scam
Daeva market 14/06/2020 28/02/2021 Unknown
Cartel Market 15/06/2020 24/12/2021 Unknown
Hyper Market 21/06/2020 26/10/2020 Voluntary exit
Tor2door Market 03/07/2020 14/09/2023 Exit scam
Corona Market 07/07/2020 14/03/2021 Exit scam
Neptune market 14/07/2020 25/02/2021 Unknown
Potluck market 25/08/2020 18/01/2021 Voluntary exit
Invictus 27/08/2020   Open
Phoenix Market 02/09/2020 12/01/2021 Voluntary exit
LimeMarket 14/09/2020   Open
Aurora Market 02/11/2020 04/05/2021 Exit scam
World Market 09/11/2020 08/03/2022 Exit scam
Incognito 14/01/2021   Open
Libery 21/01/2021   Open
Revolution Market 01/04/2021 01/06/2022 Voluntary exit
Hermes 01/04/2021   Open
Kingdom Market 19/04/2021 19/12/2023 Raided
UnionMarket 24/04/2021   Open
MGM Grand Market 26/04/2021   Open
Bohemia 01/05/2021   Open
The Hive 24/05/2021   Open
Nemesis 26/05/2021   Open
Victory Market 01/06/2021   Open
Chiron 04/08/2021   Open
Ares 08/08/2021   Open
Alphabay 08/08/2021 28/11/2022 Exit scam
Evil Corp 17/08/2021   Open
Casio Market 16/09/2021   Open
Abacus (Alphabet) 28/09/2021   Open
Quest 20/10/2021   Open
Kerberos 02/02/2022   Open
Alien 08/02/2022 04/07/2022 Hacked
Black Pyramid 03/03/2022   Open
Lion Marketplace 10/03/2022   Open
Asur 11/03/2022   Open
Omicron 30/03/2022 23/07/2022 Hacked
Cosmos 04/04/2022   Open
GrandBazaar 01/05/2022   Open
Solaris 14/05/2022   Open
Holy Grail 30/05/2022   Open
Courier 01/07/2022   Open
Cloud 05/07/2022 24/12/2022 Voluntary exit
DarkDock 14/07/2022   Open
Mellow 01/09/2022 25/04/2023 Voluntary exit
TorZon 12/09/2022   Open
Sonanza 20/09/2022   Open
Cannabia 01/11/2022   Open
Apocalypse 16/12/2022   Open
High supply 31/03/2023 01/09/2023 Voluntary exit
Euphoria 30/05/2023   Open

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